Poultry Farming in Nigeria is probably one of the most lucrative farming business you can do in Nigeria especially when it is setup and managed properly. The farmers we currently have are not producing enough poultry and will not be enough even in the next ten years! This aspect of livestock farming presents one of the finest opportunity for entrepreneurs to make good money within the shortest period of time possible. This is made possible by the quick maturity of chicken. With over 160 Million consumers in the country who buys poultry products on daily basis, the market is always here waiting to be tapped. The demand for eggs is so high that people go about everyday looking for where to buy eggs for supply.
So, how exactly can anyone who wishes to start poultry farming in Nigeria be able to go about it and come out very profitable? This article will cover a lot of ground, this very post will take more critical look at the business and how entrepreneurs who are interested in this business in Nigeria could start easily without wasting much time and resources. Anyone can engage in poultry farming business, it does not matter your educational or financial background. You can start at any level and grow as big as you want with time. The most important thing is that you are interested in starting somewhere. This article will focus on how to start small and grow big which I think will interest anyone with limited financial capacity who wants to start small without involving much risks.
One of the factors that makes poultry farming business ideal is chickens grow very fast. Unlike goats that take 2 to 3 years to mature, a chicken can be ready for the market within 28 weeks from birth. That is why it is considered ideal business for loan takers who may actually invest the loan and within 30 to 40 weeks, they may start paying back through the money realized from sells. That is if everything goes well as planned. Average healthy Layer lays egg almost every day or at least 4 times in a week. Some Breeds can lay as much as 325 eggs in a year and take 21 days to hatch. This means that technically a Layer is capable of producing another chicken twice in three days. Therefore, if you have 500 healthy layers of good breeds (such as California white) they are capable of reproducing a whopping 12,000 chicks within 40 days!
Within 21 days, the egg is hatched and within 28 weeks, they are ready for the market. That means a farmer may start making his money in just 34 weeks after successfully setting up his farm and whatever returns he make could be doubled in a year based on this calculation. A fully-grown healthy chicken sells between 2,000 to 2,500 naira in Nigeria. Therefore, if you produce 12,000 chickens in your farm, you will be making N24 million by the time they are completely sold. Apart from the chicken, the egg is money on its own. A crate of eggs sells for N500 – N550 for smaller eggs and N600 – N650 for bigger ones. Each crate contains 30 eggs. Therefore, if you have 500 layers that produces 12,000 pullet in a month and decides to sell all, you will be making N200,000 to N260,000 monthly.
As you can see, the profit in poultry farming in Nigeria is mouthwatering and the turn over time is fantastic. The big question now is how to get this business started?
First step is to draw out your effective business plan. Poultry business plan is like a road map leading you to where you are going in your business. It will help you know where you are at any point in time. Hence, your business plan should include:
1. Decide on Type of Poultry Bird
Here you choose Chickens (Layers and Broilers). We choose chicken because that’s what this article focuses on. There are other types of birds, such as Goose, Duck, Turkey, etc.
2. Write down your Area of Interest
You cannot just be in all aspect of poultry farming in Nigeria. You have to choose your area of interest where you would like to concentrate your business. This will ensure high level of focus and professionalism. Do not be a Jack of all trade master of none. Below are some of the major Niches in Poultry Farming in Nigeria or elsewhere.
- Layers Breeding which is egg production by Layers
- Broilers breeding which refers to the chicken meat production by Broilers
- Hatchery which has to do with breeding chicken for the purpose of Hatching new chicks
- Poultry feed which is producing feeds for other poultry farmers
You may choose to Breed Layers and Broilers at a time or one of them. Hatchery is better done independently just like feed production. Therefore, you choose your area of focus
3. Sort out Location
This has a direct effect to your startup cost. A location in a very remote rural area will cost far less than the one close to the urban area. Remote rural area with good road is the ideal location as you will be free from regulatory agencies and drive down the cost of labor too. As a person new to Livestock business, you do not want to invest all your capital into buying lands in urban area which may turn out not being used. Government policy is against setting up poultry farm near residential/urban areas for health implications.
4. Secure you Poultry Farm Starting Capital
With location in mind, you now have clearer idea of the capital required of you. Write down your detailed capital and investment requirements for your poultry farming in Nigeria venture and set out to source for it. Like every other farming projects, the bigger you plan to start, the more investment required. You need to decide on the level of capital investment you are willing to commit into this business before starting.
(a) Small scale Chicken Rearing (of about 50 birds) kept in cages at the backyard of your resident will take about N70,000 to start.
(b) A medium scale poultry farming that requires land and housing and other materials in 1 – 2 plots of Land takes about N500,000 to N5 Million to start.
(c) Large scale or Intensive poultry farming that requires high level of sophistication and more careful planning and professionalism, using advance Livestock farming techniques takes from N10 Million.
With your business plan in place, the next is to proceed to setting up your farm immediately! Therefore, here are the things you need to acquire and put in place. Like we said earlier, look for land in a remote location but make sure it is not too far from the city. Next get them a house it is very important for chicken rearing and effective keeping and management. Poultry housing are classified according to the scale and the management system. The most common types of poultry housing used for poultry farming in Nigeria are, deep litter, half litter and half slats battery and semi-fol
When the aforementioned is set, look for good Hatchery where you can get healthy day old chicks to start with. It costs from N140 to N200 sometimes up to N300. You need to also get feeders, drinkers, perches, nests, crates, lighting system, waste disposal system, incubator, heaters or brooders, egg tray, cages and coops. These are the easiest way to start your poultry business.